|Born as||Marcus Tullius Cicero|
Arpinum, Italy, Roman Republic
Formia, Italy, Roman Republic
|Cause||Execution by decapitation|
Marcus Tullius Cicero was born on January 3, 106 BC, in Arpinum, a hill town situated around 100 miles southeast of Rome. Cicero belonged to the equestrian class or the 2nd tier of the Roman social hierarchy, just listed below the senatorial class. His daddy was a provincial landowner with interests in Rome, which allowed young Cicero to receive the very best education possible.
Cicero received early education in Rome and later studied law, rhetoric, and approach. He studied under the most prominent instructors of his days, like the Roman philosopher Philo
of Larissa and the Greek rhetorician Apollonius Molon. After finishing his education, Cicero served briefly in the army prior to embarking on his profession as an advocate and orator.
Legal Career and Entry into Politics
Cicero's legal career began under the observation of significant Roman orator and political leader Lucius Licinius Crassus. The majority of his early cases were defenses, and they offered a platform for him to display his remarkable oratory abilities. His first considerable legal triumph was available in the case of Pro Quinctio in 81 BC.
Cicero's growing reputation in the law courts led him to go into politics. He began his political profession as a quaestor in 75 BC, responsible for the Roman treasury and financial matters. His term as quaestor in Sicily made him tremendous appeal and support from the Sicilian people. In 70 BC, Cicero was elected as aedile and later on as praetor in 66 BC, which gave him the chance to lead a court for the very first time.
The most famous case that catapulted Cicero into the spotlight was his effective prosecution of the corrupt provincial guv Gaius Verres in 70 BC. Cicero's powerful and eloquent denunciation of Verres led to the latter's conviction and exile.
Consulship and the Catilinarian Conspiracy
In 63 BC, Cicero was elected consul, the highest office in the Roman Republic, and served along with Gaius Antonius Hybrida. His election was seen as a victory for the "new men" or novi homines, Roman politicians who did not originate from old senatorial families.
During his consulship, Cicero faced the Catilinarian conspiracy led by Lucius Sergius Catilina. Catilina and his fans looked for to overthrow the Roman Republic and institute a new federal government led by themselves. Cicero, through prompt intelligence event and wise political maneuvering, was able to expose the conspirators and deliver a series of speeches known as the Catiline Orations. The Senate declared martial law, and the main conspirators were detained and executed without trial. Cicero's success over the conspiracy was celebrated as a victory of law and order.
Exile and Return
Cicero's opponents, notably the populist politician Publius Clodius Pulcher, looked for to discredit and punish him for performing the Catilinarian conspirators without a trial. In 58 BC, Clodius maneuvered an expense through the Senate that indirectly targeted Cicero, causing his exile. Cicero took haven in Thessalonica, Macedonia, while his home in Rome was taken and his house ruined.
Cicero's exile lasted for 16 months. Throughout this time, his good friends and advocates lobbied tirelessly for his return. In 57 BC, the Senate passed a decree to restore Cicero's home and recall him to Rome. His return was met widespread festivity, with fans lining the streets to invite him back.
Later Political Career and Philosophical Writings
Cicero's political influence and power decreased after his return from exile, as Julius Caesar
, Pompey the Great, and Marcus Licinius Crassus formed the First Triumvirate - an informal political alliance that controlled Rome's government. Unable to discover a place in the new political order, Cicero relied on writing thoroughly on philosophical and rhetorical subjects.
During this duration, Cicero produced some of his most well-known works, consisting of "De Oratore" (On the Orator), "De Re Publica" (On the Republic), "De Legibus" (On the Laws), "De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum" (On completions of Good and Evil), and "De Natura Deorum" (On the Nature of the Gods).
The Civil War and Assassination
The Roman Republic descended into civil war following the assassination of Julius Caesar
in 44 BC. Cicero initially welcomed Caesar's death, wishing for a return to the old Republic's virtues. However, the increase of Mark Antony as a dominant figure in Rome required Cicero to reevaluate his position.
Cicero fiercely opposed Mark Antony in a series of speeches known as the Philippics, looking for to turn the Senate versus him in favor of Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew, and adopted child. However, this method backfired when Octavian and Antony eventually fixed up and formed the Second Triumvirate, along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
In 43 BC, the Second Triumvirate initiated a series of proscriptions versus its opponents, and Cicero was consisted of in the list. He attempted to run away, but Roman soldiers ultimately recorded and executed him on December 7, 43 BC. His head and hands were shown in the Roman Forum as a gruesome warning to other prospective opponents.
Cicero's works have had a profound and long-lasting impact on Western viewpoint and rhetoric. His ideas on the importance of reason, the need to study philosophy to understand the world, the function of oratory in public life, and the requirement of moral stability for politicians continue to be extensively studied and appreciated. In both his political profession and his intellectual pursuits, Cicero's life exemplified the ancient Roman virtues of knowledge, courage, and devotion to the general public excellent.
Our collection contains 130 quotes who is written / told by Cicero, under the main topics: Age
Related authors: Plutarch (Philosopher), Philo (Philosopher), Michel de Montaigne (Philosopher), Julius Caesar (Leader), Marcus Terentius Varro (Author), Lawrence Taylor (Athlete), Ryan White (Celebrity)
Cicero Famous Works:
Source / external links: